Steel industry as a pioneer of circular economy: variety of end uses for slags


World annual steel production in 2017 was about 1690 million tonnes

Urban mining with liquid-free recovery of noble metals


One goal of the CloseLoop research consortium is to improve the recovery processes of valuable raw materials from sources that are currently uneconomic.

Safety of Lithium ion batteries


In recent years, lithium ion batteries have received lots of publicity and been discussed in media – in both positive and negative context.

Challenges and opportunities of utilising secondary raw materials


There are several advantages in safe and enhanced utilisation of secondary raw materials, especially side streams and residual materials.

Petter Forsström Best Paper Award of Finnish Association of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers to CloseLoop author team